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2016-09-09 07:17:09|  分类: 转载 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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“Making of seamless textures ” by Wojtek “Buddy” Starak


Hi! This is my first tutorial, especially here on 3dtutorials.sk!

I want to show here my technique for making seamless textures for games, also how to create normal and specular maps. To not waste too much time on talkin I’ll start explaining asap. I’m using Photoshop 7.0, so tutorial is mostly for PS users but other applications offer really simmilar tools.

我想在这里表现我用于游戏的制作无缝图层的技巧,同样介绍怎么创造normal 和specular maps。为不浪费太多时间我现在开始解说。我使用PS7.0,所以本指南适用于大部分PS使用者以及其他其他非常相近的工具软件。

So, first, we need a good photo reference. I used this one straight from www.environment-textures.com



Original size was: 2421x1565px I resized it to: 1200×776.


We need to pick a part of the photo we want to use as a texture, but first we need to select “Rectangular Marquee Tool“



set style to fixed size and set it to 512 px / 512 px

固定画框被固定大小并且固定它为512 px / 512 px


this is the size of the texture we gonna use”, “px” is important here, if we just type 512 selection will be 512 centimeters instead of pixels. Now just click on the photo and move around square marquee, find a good spot to use as center of texture but make sure there’ll be some margins on atleast on vertical and horizontal side of photo, to later use it to fix “seams”. Also try avoiding spots on the texture which are very characteristic, like the yellow stone on that wall, I leaved it in the selection to show later how to fix this.



Ok, when photo spot is found, just click “Ctrl+C” or select Edit->Copy. After this, create new document which will be automaticly in size of copied selection (512x512px), now paste it on the document. (Ctrl+V or Edit->Paste).


Now we need to come back to the photo reference we used, and delete (delete button ) this 512×512 selection. When that’s done, we have to, in order to get rid of ugly seams, copy one vertical and horizontal piece of the ref. But before that, we should set “Guide Lines” to help algining “Rectangular Marquee Tool“(this time with normal style) while selecting those margins.


To setup guides: You need to enable “Rulers” (white bars on left and top side of workspace, “Rulers” button is located View Tab). Also to enable Algin/Snap to the Guide Lines, You need to turn on “Snap” located in View tab, make sure that all options in “Snap To” submenu are on. To set the actual guidelines, (lines that help define proportions, use to snap/algin other objects, define exacly distance in cm, meters, pixels and so on.) You just need to drag them out from the white bars on top/left of the workspace, move them to the edges of deleted 512×512 selection, they will align automaticaly!

对于设置向导:你需要授权“标尺”(工作区左顶部的白色工具条,“标尺”位于视图菜单)。同样授权Algin/Snap以引导线路,你需要开启 “Snap”它位于观察菜单,确定“Snap To”子菜单的所有选项为打开。设置实际的指导路线,(划线以帮助定义平衡,使用snap/algin其它的对象,使用厘米、米、像素等等定义距离)你只需要拖拉它们出去工作区左顶部的白色工具条,移动它们到被删除的512*512被选物的边缘,它们将自动粘合在一起。


(译者曰:直接矩形选区工具 样式选择固定大小 框选出你想要的区域 然后视图菜单里面的 标尺 对齐 对齐到??全部勾上就好.然后直接拉出参考线 会自动对齐到你选择的区域 注:不要取消选择矩形选取区域)


Now we can finally get rid of ugly seams mentioned above, create a selection with marquee tool on the top of deleted piece of ref, hit Ctrl+C and paste it on our 512×512 texture, drag it to bottom. Be sure You’ve selected new layer “Later 1”, choose Eraser tool and try to remove most of the top side of the copied margin, play around with opacity/flow values, it’ll help you define smooth blends if needed.



Do the same with vertical side but now drag the selection from right on the ref to left on the 512 document.


If everything went well You should end up with something simmilar to this:



Note: You can use Ctrl+E to merge layers.


To check if texture tiles perfectly create a new document in 1024×1024 size and paste 4 times whole finished 512 texture. If option snap is enabled they will algin to themselfs and edges of image. Should look like this:



Looks good so far, I mentioned something about characteristic spots on the texture, which You can easly notice when they tile, in this one that “characteristic spot” is the yellow stone, to get rid of that color diference, create a new layer, select brush tool



to pick a color from image hold “Alt” and click place where You want to pic color from, I took color from one of the stones. Now paint over the yellow stone, use softbrush for that (right click on workspace, select one of the soft brushes, you can define size of it on top of the menu)



when You finish, change layer blending mode to “Color” (notice little Otacon helping me with work ).



Tada! Stone have changed color, but it’s far from perfect, choose few diffrent colors and add some little details. What I ended with:



When you put it again on 1024 texture you’ll notice it looks far better. We can say that the texture is finsihed, all we need now are normal and specular maps. First save your new homemade texture into .tga file. There is several methods for making normal maps, I’m going to show an easy method, for this we’ll need Nvidia normal map plugin, install it and open your tga. In order to create normal map we need to desaturate image, Image->Adjustments->Desaturate. To create a basic normal map from it, click Filter->Nvidia Tools->Normalmap filter. Set it like this:

当你在一次把它放到1024图层上的时候你将注意到它看起来好了很多。我们能够认为这个图层完成了,所有我们现在需要的是标准的和镜像的图。首先保存你新自制的图层到.tga文件格式。这里有几个方法去制造normal map,我在这里展现一个简单的方法,在这里我需要Nvidia normal map插件,安装它并且打开你的tga文件。为了去创建一个normal map我们需要去降低图片的饱和度,图片-调节-不饱和度。用它创建一个基本的normal map,点击文件-Nvidia工具-normal map文件。设置它如下:


It’s simpliest normalmap you can create, here’s picture with them rendered on our texture.



It doesn’t look to good, we need to tweak it a little. Paint over desaturated image using black (deeper parts) and white colors (stuff sticking out), they simply define heights on the texture. Should end with something simmilar:



Now create normalmaps again (Filter->Nvidia Tools->Normalmap filter). Use scales to define how much “deep” we want texture to be. Set it to 0 and 3. Looks far better!



We want also a specular map which will define where should the texture “shine”, same as for normal map, desaturate image. (white – more spec, black – less spec) If we’ll use just desaturated map it will end looking like this:

我们同样需要一个specular map在那些将定义图层“发光”的地方,有一些如同normal map、不饱和图片一样的处理。(白色-较多的地方,黑色-较少的地方)如果我们将仅仅使用不饱和图它将在最后看起来像这样:


In order to fix this, we need first to change brightness&contrast of image, Image->Adjustments->Brightness/Contrast. Tune up Contrast and Tune down Brightness. It will result in only few parts of the texture shine, like the stone should. Result:



When rendered ingame it will look far better.


Whole texture is done all that can be done are small fixes on corners of the texture but on this one it wasn’t needed and even if, after passing this tut You should know how to do that , great job if you passed through this tut! I hope it helped out.


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